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Good discussion. There’s an interesting data point here that could help explain why the “perspective taking” thing was so unsuccessful, and provides support for your caricature explanation. It was a survey taken last year, which found (among other things) that self-identified Democrats think Republicans are a lot more indifferent toward racism than they actually are, and that self-identified Republicans think Democrats have far more anti-American sentiments than they actually do. Higher levels of education (for liberals) and greater consumption of the Fake News Media were correlated with greater polarization.
(And we haven’t even gotten to President Trump or religion)